tents, capture their horses and carry off all they could lay
hands on. Meanwhile, the Raja of Madura came out with his
troops; the feudatory rulers on one side and the Jcallars on the
other attacked the Muslims and fought them ; the Muslims
resisted, but were forced to retreat, and their camp was looted
by the kallars. Only a few on the Muslim side managed to
escape and reach Ginjee. Sher Khan Lodi, Sikandar Khan
Lodi and others fell in battle, •Kainruddm Khan sent to the
Padusah accounts of tlie war in Madura with plans and details
regarding the Jcallar, seeing which the Padusah exclaimed:
" God ! are the hollar for Ginjee and the kallar for Madura?".
alin Frtftntam : Mae, Mss. 17-5-11.
345(cO. THE AYAGARS.
There are twelve functionaries (or officers) for every
village : —
1. Accountant. 7. Shoe-maker.
2. Headman. 8. Goldsmith.
3. Carpenter. 9. Watchman,
4. Washerman. 10* Waterman.
5. Purohit, 11. Black-smith.
6. Barber. 12. Potter.
These are called the ayagars.
In each village, the villagers offer to these officers as
suited to their status two kinds of remuneration, buyam and
arthayam from the produce of their fields. That which is
given to the Gods and the Brahmans is known as devadaya and
To the ayagars two wuntas* of grain are measured out as
buyam and two muntas as arthayam^ for each kapile, field or
khatiduga according to the usage of each pargana.
* Muni a is a -vessel of standard capacity commonly three seers for dealing out qu.an.ti-
ties of grain,
f BSfaat (B(h)* +Syam) means income from land ; artJ&yam means income in cash..
Each villager h*d to pay tfce rillace officers a percentage of their income from either of